Despite being popular, they also declined in this period. Since art films have small initial investment costs, they only need to appeal to a small portion of mainstream audiences to become financially viable. Archived from the original on 14 September
In and respectively, Tarkovsky directed two other films, which garnered critical acclaim overseas: The Mirror and Stalker. Terrence Malick , who directed Badlands and Days of Heaven shared many traits with Tarkovsky, such as his long, lingering shots of natural beauty, evocative imagery, and poetic narrative style. Another feature of s art films was the return to prominence of bizarre characters and imagery, which abound in the tormented, obsessed title character in German New Wave director Werner Herzog 's Aguirre, the Wrath of God , and in cult films such as Alejandro Jodorowsky 's psychedelic The Holy Mountain about a thief and an alchemist seeking the mythical Lotus Island.
The gritty violence and seething rage of Scorsese's film contrasts other films released in the same period, such as David Lynch 's dreamlike, surreal Eraserhead In , John Cassavetes offered a sharp commentary on American blue-collar life in A Woman Under the Influence , which features an eccentric housewife slowly descending into madness.
Also in the s, Radley Metzger directed several adult art films , such as Barbara Broadcast , which presented a surrealistic "Buñellian" atmosphere,  and The Opening of Misty Beethoven , based on the play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw and its derivative, My Fair Lady , which was considered, according to award-winning author Toni Bentley , to be the "crown jewel" of the Golden Age of Porn ,   an era in modern American culture that was inaugurated by the release of Andy Warhol's Blue Movie and featured the phenomenon of " porno chic "   in which adult erotic films began to obtain wide release, were publicly discussed by celebrities such as Johnny Carson and Bob Hope  and taken seriously by film critics such as Roger Ebert.
In , director Martin Scorsese shocked audiences, who had become used to the escapist blockbuster adventures of Steven Spielberg and George Lucas , with the gritty, harsh realism of his film Raging Bull. In this film, actor Robert De Niro took method acting to an extreme to portray a boxer's decline from a prizewinning young fighter to an overweight, "has-been" nightclub owner. Ridley Scott 's Blade Runner , while labeled as a fast-paced action film, could also be seen as a science fiction art film, along with A Space Odyssey Blade Runner explores themes of existentialism , or what it means to be human.
A box-office failure, the film became popular on the arthouse circuit as a cult oddity after the release of a "director's cut" became successful via VHS home video. In the middle of the decade, Japanese director Akira Kurosawa used realism to portray the brutal, bloody violence of Japanese samurai warfare of the 16th century in Ran Ran followed the plot of King Lear , in which an elderly king is betrayed by his children. Sergio Leone also contrasted brutal violence with emotional substance in his epic tale of mobster life in Once Upon a Time in America.
Other directors in the s chose a more intellectual path, exploring philosophical and ethical issues. In , Woody Allen made, in the words of New York Times critic Vincent Canby , his most "securely serious and funny film to date", Crimes and Misdemeanors , which involves multiple stories of people who are trying to find moral and spiritual simplicity while facing dire issues and thoughts surrounding the choices they make.
French director Louis Malle chose another moral path to explore with the dramatization of his real-life childhood experiences in Au revoir, les enfants , which depicts the occupying Nazi government's deportation of French Jews to concentration camps during World War II.
Ingmar Bergman made Fanny and Alexander , which was shown on television in an extended five-hour version. In the United Kingdom, Channel 4 , a new television channel, financed, in whole or in part, many films released theatrically through its Film 4 subsidiary.
Wim Wenders offered another approach to life from a spiritual standpoint in his film Wings of Desire , a depiction of a "fallen angel" who lives among men, which won the Best Director Award at the Cannes Film Festival.
In , experimental director Godfrey Reggio released Koyaanisqatsi , a film without dialogue, which emphasizes cinematography and philosophical ideology. It consists primarily of slow motion and time-lapse cinematography of cities and natural landscapes, which results in a visual tone poem. Another approach used by directors in the s was to create bizarre, surreal alternative worlds.
Martin Scorsese 's After Hours is a comedy-thriller that depicts a man's baffling adventures in a surreal nighttime world of chance encounters with mysterious characters.
David Lynch 's Blue Velvet , a film noir -style thriller-mystery filled with symbolism and metaphors about polarized worlds and inhabited by distorted characters who are hidden in the seamy underworld of a small town, became surprisingly successful considering its highly disturbing subject matter.
According to Raphaël Bassan , in his article " The Angel: Un météore dans le ciel de l'animation",  Patrick Bokanowski 's The Angel , shown at the Cannes Film Festival , can be considered the beginning of contemporary animation. The characters' masks erase all human personality and give the impression of total control over the "matter" of the image and its optical composition, using distorted areas, obscure visions, metamorphoses, and synthetic objects.
Japanese director Akira Kurosawa's Dreams depicted his imaginative reveries in a series of vignettes that range from idyllic pastoral country landscapes to horrific visions of tormented demons and a blighted post-nuclear war landscape. The Coen brothers ' Barton Fink , which won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival , features various literary allusions in an enigmatic story about a writer who encounters a range of bizarre characters, including an alcoholic, abusive novelist and a serial killer.
Lost Highway , from the same director as Blue Velvet , is a psychological thriller that explores fantasy worlds, bizarre time-space transformations, and mental breakdowns using surreal imagery. Other directors in the s explored philosophical issues and themes such as identity, chance, death, and existentialism. It was called a "high-water mark in '90s independent film",  a "stark, poetic rumination",  and an "exercise in film experimentation"  of "high artistic quality".
Daryush Shokof 's film Seven Servants is an original high art cinema piece about a man who strives to "unite" the world's races until his last breath. One year after Seven Servants , Abbas Kiarostami 's film Taste of Cherry ,  which won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, tells a similar tale with a different twist; both films are about a man trying to hire a person to bury him after he commits suicide.
Seven Servants was shot in a minimalist style, with long takes, a leisurely pace, and long periods of silence. The film is also notable for its use of long shots and overhead shots to create a sense of distance between the audience and the characters.
To Live won the Grand Jury Prize. Several s films explored existentialist-oriented themes related to life, chance, and death. Robert Altman 's Short Cuts explores themes of chance, death, and infidelity by tracing 10 parallel and interwoven stories. The film, which won the Golden Lion and the Volpi Cup at the Venice Film Festival , was called a "many-sided, many mooded, dazzlingly structured eclectic jazz mural" by Chicago Tribune critic Michael Wilmington.
Darren Aronofsky 's film Pi is an "incredibly complex and ambiguous film filled with both incredible style and substance" about a paranoid math genius' "search for peace". The films are filled with allusions to reproductive organs and sexual development, and use narrative models drawn from biography, mythology, and geology. In , Terrence Malick returned from a year absence with The Thin Red Line , a war film that uses poetry and nature to stand apart from typical war movies.
Some s films mix an ethereal or surreal visual atmosphere with the exploration of philosophical issues. Kieslowski's Three Colors trilogy —4 , particularly Blue and Red , deal with human relationships and how people cope with them in their day-to-day lives.
The trilogy of films was called "explorations of spirituality and existentialism"  that created a "truly transcendent experience". The reviewer stated that "[a]ll the ingredients that have come to define Lars von Trier 's career and in turn, much of modern European cinema are present here: A number of films from the s with art film qualities were notable for their use of innovative filmmaking or editing techniques.
Memento , a psychological thriller directed by Christopher Nolan , is about a man suffering from short-term memory loss. The film is edited so that the plot is revealed backwards in ten-minute chunks, simulating the condition of memory loss. Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind is a romance film directed by Michel Gondry about a man who hires a company to erase the memory of a bad relationship. The film uses a range of special effects techniques and camera work to depict the destruction of the man's memories and his transitions from one memory to another.
Timecode , a film directed by Mike Figgis , uses a split screen to show four continuous minute takes that follow four storylines.
Russian Ark , a film directed by Alexander Sokurov , took Figgis' use of extended takes even further; it is notable for being the first feature film shot in a single, unedited take. Waking Life , an animated film directed by Richard Linklater, uses an innovative digital rotoscope technique to depict a young man stuck in a dream.
Several s-era films explored the theme of amnesia or memory, but unlike Memento , they did so through the use of narrative techniques rather than filmmaking and editing methods. Mulholland Drive , directed by David Lynch , is initially about a young woman who moves to Hollywood and discovers that an amnesiac is living in her house; as the plot progresses, it becomes apparent that the film is holding something deeper in terms of its plot and characters.
Oldboy , directed by Park Chan-wook , is about a man imprisoned by a mysterious and brutal captor for 15 years. After his abrupt release, he must then chase his old memories. Peppermint Candy , directed by Lee Chang-dong , starts with the suicide of the male protagonist, and then uses reverse chronology similar to Memento to depict the events of the last 20 years, which led the man to want to kill himself.
Some notable films from the s are considered to possess art film qualities yet differed from mainstream films due to controversial subject matter or narrative form. Todd Haynes ' complex deconstruction of Bob Dylan 's persona, I'm Not There , tells its story using non-traditional narrative techniques, intercutting the storylines of the six different Dylan-inspired characters.
Mexican director Guillermo del Toro 's film Pan's Labyrinth uses computer-generated imagery CGI to create a fantastical world, imagined by a ten-year-old girl to block out the horror of the Spanish Civil War. In , director Paul Thomas Anderson claimed that his film Punch-Drunk Love about a shy, repressed rage-aholic was "an art house Adam Sandler film", a reference to the unlikely inclusion of "frat boy" comic Sandler in the film; critic Roger Ebert claims that Punch Drunk Love "may be the key to all of the Adam Sandler films, and may liberate Sandler for a new direction in his work.
He can't go on making those moronic comedies forever, can he? Who would have guessed he had such uncharted depths? This film, which won the Cannes Palme d'Or, "ties together what might just be a series of beautifully shot scenes with moving and funny musings on the nature of death and reincarnation, love, loss, and karma". His films deal with dreams, nature, sexuality, including his own homosexuality ,  and Western perceptions of Thailand and Asia.
Terrence Malick 's The Tree of Life was released after decades of development and won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival ; it was highly praised by critics. At the Avon Theater in Stamford, Connecticut , a message was posted about the theater's no-refund policy due to "some customer feedback and a polarized audience response" to the film.
The theater stated that it "stands behind this ambitious work of art and other challenging films". The movie was well received, some claiming it to be Von Trier's masterpiece with others highlighting Kirsten Dunst 's performance, the visuals, and realism depicted in the movie.
Jonathan Glazer 's Under the Skin was screened at the Venice Film Festival and received a theatrical release through indie studio A24 the following year. The film, starring Scarlett Johansson , follows an alien in human form as she travels around Glasgow , picking up unwary men for sex, harvesting their flesh and stripping them of their humanity.
Dealing with themes such as sexuality, humanity, and objectification, the film received positive reviews  and was hailed by some as a masterpiece;  critic Richard Roeper described the film as "what we talk about when we talk about film as art".
Quality artistic television ,  a television genre or style which shares some of the same traits as art films, has been identified. Television shows, such as David Lynch's Twin Peaks and the BBC 's The Singing Detective , also have "a loosening of causality, a greater emphasis on psychological or anecdotal realism, violations of classical clarity of space and time, explicit authorial comment, and ambiguity". As with much of Lynch's other work notably the film Blue Velvet , Twin Peaks explores the gulf between the veneer of small-town respectability and the seedier layers of life lurking beneath its surface.
The show is difficult to place in a defined television genre; stylistically, it borrows the unsettling tone and supernatural premises of horror films and simultaneously offers a bizarrely comical parody of American soap operas with a campy , melodramatic presentation of the morally dubious activities of its quirky characters.
The show represents an earnest moral inquiry distinguished by both weird humor and a deep vein of surrealism , incorporating highly stylized vignettes, surrealist and often inaccessible artistic images alongside the otherwise comprehensible narrative of events.
Other television shows that have been called "artistic television" include The Simpsons for its use of a "flurry of cultural references, intentionally inconsistent characterization, and considerable self-reflexivity about television conventions and the status of the programme as a television show".
HBO's The Wire might also qualify as "artistic television", as it has garnered a greater amount of critical attention from academics than most television shows receive. For example, the film theory journal Film Quarterly has featured the show on its cover.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Retrieved 21 April The Emergence of Art House Cinema. From Iconography to Ideology. Retrieved February 22, — via www. Modernism in the narrative cinema: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. The French New Wave: Translated by Richard Neupert. Archived from the original on May 11, Andy Warhol's 'Blue Movie ' ". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, Retrieved February 22, Retrieved April 21, Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved November 13, — via The Wayback Machine.
The European Art Movie". The Magic Works of Ingmar Bergman. Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 22 February The Beginnings and the Future. Archived from the original PDF on July 5, Retrieved February 22, — via The Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on July 21, Exhibition, the Film Reader. University of Minnesota Press. Archived from the original on 14 September He also made El Topo , a surrealistic western film.
Retrieved February 21, Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved January 26, The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved January 20, When Porno Was Chic". Retrieved January 27, Retrieved February 7, An X-Rated Musical Fantasy". Retrieved February 26, Later in the s, Kar-wai directed Happy Together film No 24 best arthouse film of all time". Cartoon shorts had a longer life, due in part to the implementation of lower-cost limited animation techniques. Despite being popular, they also declined in this period.
The Pink Panther was the last regular theatrical cartoon short series, having begun in and thus having spent its entire existence in the limited animation era and ended in By the s, the market for animated shorts had largely shifted to television, with existing theatrical shorts being syndicated to television. A few animated shorts continue within mainstream commercial distribution. For instance, Pixar has screened a short along with each of its feature films during its initial theatrical run since producing shorts permanently since DreamWorks Animation often produces a short sequel to include in the special edition video releases of major features, and are typically of a sufficient length to be broadcast as a TV special , a few films from the studio have added theatrical shorts as well.
In and Warners also released new Looney Tunes cartoons before family films. Shorts are occasionally broadcast as filler when a feature film or other work doesn't fit the standard broadcast schedule. ShortsTV was the first television channel dedicated to short films. However, short films generally rely on festival exhibition to reach an audience.
Such movies can also be distributed via the Internet. Certain websites which encourage the submission of user-created short films, such as YouTube, Snoovies  , CinemaClubby  and Vimeo  have attracted large communities of artists and viewers. Short films are a typical first stage for new filmmakers, but professional actors and crews often still choose to create short films as an alternative form of expression.
The lower production costs of short films often mean that short films can cover alternative subject matter as compared to higher budget feature films. Similarly unconventional filmmaking techniques such as Pixilation or narratives that are told without dialogue, are more often seen in short films than features.
Tropfest claims to be the world's largest short film festival. Tropfests now take place in Australia its birthplace , Arabia, the US and elsewhere. Originating in , Tropfest is often credited as being at least partially responsible for the recent popularity of short films internationally. Short short films are sometimes considered in a category of their own. Filminute , the international one-minute film festival, has presented and promoted a collection of one-minute films across multiple media since September Canada has a "television magazine program that features short films from across the country", entitled the "Short Film Face Off".
Indonesia has an organization focusing on short films dissemination, holding a monthly regular screening and also annual programs and special events for public, while building networks in Bali, Indonesia, Regional South East Asia and furthermore Internationally, named "Minikino". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The New York Times.
Watch the best Art films on Short of the Week—review and discuss the new generation of innovative stories that are shaping the world. May 14, · Discover videos and short films about Art on NOWNESS, a video channel premiering the best in global arts and culture. The second of four films from an erotic video art series entitled "Hotel Erotica". Shot in Rome and produced and directed by the artist. This 3 minute cut provides a .